If your air conditioner was installed before 2010 and you don’t know what R22 is then you should probably learn. R22 refrigerant is a chemical that keeps the air coming from your air conditioning system cool, so it’s undoubtedly incredibly important. Most air conditioning units older than 10 years use an AC refrigerant called R22 that’s commonly recognized as Freon*, and is noted by the EPA as HCFC-22. In this article, we’ll use the name R22. This refrigerant was introduced in the 1950s and became the leading AC refrigerant in the residential heating and cooling industry.
The Montreal Protocol
Fast forward a few decades and the world realized that R22 refrigerant was aiding in the depletion of the Earth’s ozone layer. Not cool. So, the U.S. EPA, in cooperation with other agencies and groups around the world, initiated a phase out of lots of ozone-depleting agents as part of an international agreement known as the Montreal Protocol. The regulation lists many HCFCs and CFCs (different types of refrigerants that deplete the ozone layer), but R22 is believed to be one of the worst offenders.
Timeline and R22 phase out progress in 2018
In 2003, the phase out of R22 production and imports launched. By the start of 2010 the production and import of R22 was reduced. However, servicing current, existing equipment is still acceptable while there is an available supply of R22. To ensure the public’s compliance with the new law, all sales of R22 must be purchased by a certified technician. R22 production and import will be continually reduced by law until 2020, when all production and import will be eliminated. Only recycled R22 refrigerant will be obtainable to service existing air conditioners after 2020.
The graph above shows the EPA’s consumption allowance of R22 by percentage. The limits on R22 consumption were implemented in 2010 and follow a declining trend until 2020.
So how does this affect prices?
If this sounds like a case study on supply and demand, then you are correct. As you can imagine, older air conditioners may have more leaks and need repairs. Any systems that are older than 2010 are more likely to use R22, which means there’s a lot more demand for it, and a reduced supply. Prices have only gone up due to scarcity.
Remember that in order to purchase R22, you must be an EPA-certified technician. So, the normal homeowner can’t purchase a cylinder themselves. In addition, there are some firm regulations now on how refrigerant should be reclaimed and recycled, which adds to the cost. This cost is passed on to the homeowner as companies must cover the increased overhead related to R22 repairs. There are requirements for importing, labeling, record keeping, reporting, destruction and reclaiming of R22 from existing systems.
So, what does this mean for you?
The cost of R22 is dramatically increasing because of the dwindling supply, and new refrigerant will no longer be available for use at all after 2020, with the exception of recycled quantities.
If you’re thinking, “Wow, this is starting to sound expensive,” you’re spot-on, it is. This is why when our experts come out to inspect your unit we look to see what refrigerant your unit uses, and in many cases, we’ll advise an upgrade because of the increasing cost of maintaining an R22 air conditioner.
How do I know if my unit uses R22?
If you own an air conditioning system that was built before 2010, your AC will probably have R22. However, if you installed your air conditioner after January 1, 2010, then your air conditioner may not have R22. You can find the type of refrigerant your system runs on by looking at the appliance’s nameplate. This nameplate is normally found on the outdoor condenser of your central air conditioning system. If you can’t locate it, you can check your user’s manual. Alternatively, you can reach out to your local Service Experts center. If you have a maintenance agreement with us, we also have your information on hand and a tech can let you know quickly if your unit uses R22.
Instead of Freon, use Puron
The industry has made the switch from R22 to R410a, which you may know by the brand name Puron. Throughout this article, we’ll use the name R410a (although Puron is a well-known brand, there are other companies that make R410a). There are some key benefits to switching from an R22 air conditioning unit to one that uses R410a. It provides a higher safety rating and an ozone depletion rating of zero, and it performed slightly better on energy-efficiency tests than R22.
The truth about “drop-ins” is that there is no “drop-in” solution where you simply swap out the refrigerant.
You may have heard information about “drop-in” replacements for R22. We strongly recommend against this choice. Typically a homeowner who is uneasy about the cost of replacing their system seeks out an alternative, and this appears to be an easy solution. It typically costs the homeowner more money, and virtually always voids the manufacturer warranty. The reality about “drop-ins” is that there is no “drop-in” solution where you simply swap out the refrigerant. The phrase “drop-in” is suggesting retrofitting a air conditioner, which when done properly can cost the homeowner as much, or more, money than buying a new unit that uses R410a. In part, this is because different refrigerants operate at different pressure levels and demand different parts to run, which results in the technician needing to replace the most expensive components of your system to fit with the new refrigerant. If this critical step is missed, your system will quickly stop working, and you’ll be forced to install a new unit anyway. If you are dead set on exploring this option, then consult with an HVAC company to determine your best replacement refrigerant.
Your manufacturer will probably not pay for the parts to make this swap because retrofitting your AC system will likely void the warranty. It’s usually just a temporary fix, but purchasing a new upgraded AC system will probably benefit most homeowners in dependability, satisfaction, and long-term comfort.
It’s wise to discuss pricing offers with your HVAC provider if you’re worried about cost. At Service Experts Heating & Air Conditioning, we offer financing that makes a replacement affordable, and we watch for any manufacturer and utility rebates that would make it easier to swallow a surprising replacement. To reduce the chances of an emergency on a hot day, lots of our customers choose to do a pre-emptive replacement, and replace an old system before it quits working. If you’re of a similar mind, then you’re in good company!
If your unit was built after 2010, you’re probably safe
If your heating and air conditioning system was built after January 2010, the R22 phase out dilemma may not apply to you, because it’s probably that your system uses the new, approved replacement refrigerant, R410a. However, units installed after 2010 could potentially use R22, so it’s ideal to check with an HVAC Expert. You can always check for this and the refrigerant type by reviewing the nameplate on your condenser (the condenser is the outside unit).
What do I do if my air conditioner uses R22?
To review, if your HVAC equipment was produced prior to January 2010, especially if it’s older than a decade, you have some options:
- Buy an upgraded, more environmentally-friendly system that uses R410a.
- Reach out to an expert to replace the parts in your current AC system to help make it compatible with an approved air conditioner refrigerant. This is not advised.
- Stick with using recycled R22 and burn cash like it’s the ozone layer.
To be clear, the EPA regulates the production and use of this refrigerant, but not your system. You are not required by the law to replace your air conditioner. Ultimately, your AC will not work and it will need to be replaced, and only R410a units will be available to purchase.
The ideal option is to buy a new, upgraded air conditioner, particularly if your current air conditioner is already more than 10 years old. Service Experts Heating & Air Conditioning has lots of financing options that help with your budget, and again, we look out for rebates from HVAC manufacturers and local utilities to make it easier on you. New AC equipment is more efficient and offer you superior comfort, helping to decrease your energy costs.
You could also choose the status quo and continue using recycled R22 air conditioning refrigerant for the time being. While this sounds like a good alternative, the expense of servicing old R22 A/C systems is starting to go over several hundred dollars (easily a down payment on a new system). You may also see the prices grow as demand continues to rise on a substance that is no longer produced or widely available.
If you aren’t confident what type of AC refrigerant your air conditioning system uses, our team is here. Reach out to Service Experts Heating & Air Conditioning today and we can provide an inspection to confirm if you are currently using R22 and, if so, what’s the best next step.
The good news
While making the transition to an approved AC refrigerant may intimidating, it’s helping to save the ozone layer. These regulations will help protect the ozone layer in the Earth’s atmosphere, which helps block radiation from the sun and prevents serious illnesses, such as skin cancer. It’s not implausible to say that you, as a homeowner, are a large part of this by replacing an old R22 unit with a newer, ozone friendly unit.
If you have any questions, please use us for a free, in-home consultation by filling out the form below.
*Freon is a registered trademark of the DuPont Corporation